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This guide is based on the Harvard Style used in Cite Them Right. If your reference type is not listed in this online guide, please consult Cite them Right.
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2010) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 8th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (Palgrave Study Skills).
These can be found in the Robinson Library on Level 3 in the Study Skills section, under the shelfmark CITATION(Pea).
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When preparing a piece of work, it is inevitable that you will refer to sources written by other authors. It is essential that you provide detailed, accurate information about the sources you have used. This information must be provided for a number of reasons:
- You must correctly acknowledge your use of the statements, opinions, findings etc. of other authors that you have used in your research. Not to do so amounts to plagiarism.
- Correct citations allow others to use your work as a research source (for which you will be cited!)
- Accurate citation allows you to return to your work at a later date and still make use of the research previously undertaken
As a general rule, a citation must enable another person using your work to easily identify and locate the sources that you have used in your research.
Which Style should I use?
Harvard is a common referencing style which uses author-date in-text citations (as opposed to numeric citations).
There is no one standard form of Harvard referencing – you will find many slightly different variations. For this reason the Library has created the Harvard @Newcastle style.
If your lecturer or School has not instructed you to use a particular style, use Harvard@Newcastle.
This Guide explains how to use the Harvard@Newcastle referencing style in your work. Just click on the tabs above to see examples of in-text citations and references in a bibliography.
If you aren't using Harvard@Newcastle, click on the Other styles tab for details of other styles.
Harvard@Newcastle is also available as a special EndNote style on all networked PCs in the University and also via the Remote Application Service. If you have your own copy of EndNote, you can download the style and follow the instructions to use it.
What's the difference between a citation, a reference and a bibliography?
CITATION – this is where you refer to the source actually in the text of your document. This would be a shortened way of citing the source, with full details given in the reference list. There are different ways of writing an in-text citation which are demonstrated in this guide.
REFERENCE – the full bibliographic details of the source you have cited. In the Harvard style this is given as a reference list at the end of a document.
BIBLIOGRAPHY – this includes any sources you have read as part of your research, whether you have cited them directly or not.
Writing and Development Centre
Writing Development Centre
The Writing Development Centre promotes good writing practice across the disciplines and help undergraduate and postgraduate students to develop their academic writing skills in a supportive environment.
The Head of the Centre is Alicia Cresswell.(edit text
EndNote is a software package available at Newcastle University to manage references.
EndNote at Newcastle University includes the Harvard@Newcastle Style. We strongly recommend learning to use EndNote for your research as it will save you time and frustration!
The library provides EndNote workshops, drop-in surgeries and ‘teach yourself’ materials.
Newcastle University values high standards of academic conduct from staff and students.
This website will help you understand what this means and what we all need to do to maintain these standards.