Skip to main content

Referencing: Referencing Home

Details of common referencing styles used at Newcastle, and how to use this style to reference a range of source formats.

Why reference?

  • To make your own contribution clear
  • To acknowledge source material
  • To ensure reader can find source material
  • To avoid plagiarism

Your referencing must be comprehensive, accurate and consistent.
This guide will help you to learn about referencing, identify and follow an appropriate referencing style for your subject, and practise your referencing skills.

It is very important that you know which style you are required to use for your academic work.  Although the Harvard style of referencing is widely used, there are many other different referencing styles, some of which are particularly appropriate for certain subject disciplines. There are a number of styles used here at Newcastle - see the examples below.  Please check with your tutor if you are unsure about which style to use.

How to reference using Harvard at Newcastle style

Standard reference format for print and electronic books: 

Surname, Initials. (Year of Publication) Title in Italics. Edition if not first. Place of publication: Publisher. 


Bell, J. (2010) Doing your research project.  5th edn.  Maidenhead: Open University Press.

Please note, if an book does not include pagination and/or publisher information you should include the online source such as the collection or website that you read or downloaded it from:

Surname, Initials. (Year of Publication) Title in italics. Edition if not first edition. Name of e-book collection. [Online] Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy.  Available at: (Downloaded: 29 January 2013).

See Cite Them Right for further guidance and examples.

Practice referencing a book with our online Harvard referencing quiz.

Standard reference format for chapter or section from edited book:

Surname, Initial. (Year of publication) 'Title of chapter or section', in Surname, Initial. (ed.) Title of book.  Place of publication: publisher, Page reference.


Franklin, A.W. (2012) 'Management of the problem', in Smith, S.M. (ed.) The maltreatment of children.  Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83-95.

See Cite Them Right for further guidance and examples.

Standard reference format for print or electronic journals:

Surname, Initials. (Year of Publication) ‘Title of article in single quotes’, Title of Journal in Italics, Volume (Part/month/season where applicable), page numbers.


Norrie, C., Hammond, J., D'Avrary, L., Collington, V. and Fook, J. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across  health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565-578.

Standard reference format for electronic journal with Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Surname, Initials. (Year of Publication) ‘Title of article in single quotes’, Title of Journal in Italics, Volume (Part/month/season where applicable), page numbers. doi:xxxx/xxxxx/xx.


Shirazi, T. (2010) 'Successful teaching placements in secondary schools: achieving QTS practical handbooks', European Journal of Teacher Education, 33(3), pp. 323-326. doi: 10.1080/02619761003602246.

See Cite Them Right for further guidance and examples.

Practice referencing a journal article with our online Harvard referencing quiz.

Standard reference format for market research reports from online databases:

Author (year) 'Report title in single quotation marks'.  Available at: URL (Accessed: Last accessed date).


Mintel Oxygen (2011) 'Car insurance UK'.  Available at: (Accessed: 5 January 2013).

Standard reference format for a web page:

Author of website. (Year it was created) Title of website. Available at: URL (Accessed: last accessed date).


Burton, P.A. (2012) Castles of Spain.  Available at: (Accessed: 14 October 2012).

See Cite Them Right for further guidance and examples.

Practice referencing a web page with our online Harvard referencing quiz.

Standard reference format for a Facebook page:

Surname, Initial. (Year that the site was published/last updated) Title of page. Day/month of posted message.  Available at: URL (Accessed:date).


Tynemouth outdoor pool (2012) 29 August.  Available at: (Accessed: 31 August 2012).

Standard reference format for a Tweet:

Surname, Initial.  (Year that the page was last updated) Day/month of posted message.  Available at: URL (Accessed: date).


Fry, S. (2012) 13 January.  Available at: (Accessed: 18 December 2012).

See Cite Them Right for further guidance and examples.

Standard reference format for archival sources are often referenced in the same format as unpublished works:

When a creator or author is known:

Creator Surname, Creator Initials, Year. Document Title [Format]. Plus information on where the item is held and any identifier


Newton, W. (1785) Letter to William Ord, 23 June. [Manuscript]. 324 E11/4, Northumberland Archives, Woodhorn.

When a creator or author is not known:

Document Title. Year. [Format]. Plus information on where the item is held and any identifier


Fenham journal (1795) [Manuscript].  324 E12, Northumberland Archives, Woodhorn.


  • Authors should be cited in the order they appear on the book
  • In titles, only the first letter and proper nouns should be capitalised
  • Edition is written e.g. 2nd edn. 
  • In-text citations for e-books are exactly the same as for print books, only the reference changes


  • In article titles, only the first letter and proper nouns should be capitalised
  • Both printed and electronic journals can be referenced in the same format (no need to include URL or collection for e-journals)
  • In journal titles all words should be capitalised except linking words (e.g. of, the, for)
  • Multiple sources can be cited within brackets using a semi-colon as a separator e.g. (Blanchett, 2001; Bent, 2003). 

Web pages:

  • If you are unable to find the name of the author of the page, use the organisation as the author, e.g. (British Broadcasting Corporation).
  • If you are unable to find a date of publication/revision you may want to question whether to use the outdated source in your work.

For all sources:

  • Multiple sources can be cited within brackets using a semi-colon as a separator e.g. (Blanchett, 2001; Bent, 2003)
  • If you are using a direct quote you must include page numbers in your citations e.g. (Campbell, 2011, p. 78)
  • Single page numbers are written p. 3 and multiple pages pp. 1-3. Within in-text citations this should be given after the year e.g. (Young, 2003, p. 45) or (Young, 2003, pp. 45-46)
  • You should provide all the information for who ever is reading your work to trace the source

See Cite Them Right for further guidance and examples.


Reference Management Software

Also called bibliographic or citation management software.  

This is software that enables you to do some or all of the following:

  • collect and create new references
  • store references in either a desktop or online account
  • organise and search references
  • add notes or annotate your references
  • link to full text, web pages and documents
  • cite your references and create bibliographies in MS Word or other word processors

Some packages also have features such as:

  • the ability to share references with groups/colleagues
  • import PDFs and be able to highlight them


Image result for endnote logo

EndNote is the reference management tool that is supported at Newcastle University.  It is free to all students and members of staff and the online version is available to students for a year after the end of your course.

For information about EndNote, please see our library guide here.

With so many different types of software, how do you decide which one is right for you?  Here are some tips for you to consider when choosing:

  • Does your university/faculty prefer or recommend a particular reference management tool?
  • Check which software your friends/colleagues are using and ask how it works for them.
  • Search for online reviews about the different types of software available.
  • Which operating system do you use?  Make sure that you choose software that is compatible.
  • Is there any support for the software you have chosen?  Can you get help if you need it.
  • Is it free, and is it likely to remain free for the duration of your course/research?

There are hundreds of different types of software for managing references and citations.  Here is a sample.

BibTeX free software that works with the LaTeX document preparation system.

Cite This For Me is  free web based software which includes group sharing.

Colwiz is freely available with web-based, desktop and mobile versions

Mendeley is a free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with others online, and discover the latest research.

Papers is software for MAC users which allows you to search a number of databases from within it and export the references.

Qiqqa is a free download for managing PDFs. 

RefME is a free app which allows you to scan barcodes to create references, add references manually and export them into MSWord and other types of software.  There is also a web version.

Wizfolio is free web-based software which integrates with word processor software.

There are a number of differences between the available software.  Here are some useful comparison tables to help you decide.

University of Oxford Comparison Tables

Wikipedia Comparison of reference management software

Institute of Education @UCL comparison table

Teaching in Higher Ed comparison article


How to reference using other commonly used styles at Newcastle University

From the American Psychological Association, this is used by Speech and Language Sciences and Educational Psychology students in the School of Education, Communication & Language Sciences.  The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is available in the library and APA Style  is available from the APA website.

Here is an example showing the Biomedical Vancouver style of referencing. 

It was tailored for use by Biomedical Sciences students.  It is a superscripted version of the Vancouver style which shows the first 10 authors followed by ‘et al.’ in the reference list. 

A journal article would appear like this1, a book would appear in the format below2.  If you wanted to insert a web page it would look like this3. This is a book chapter4.

This style appears in EndNote on the University network and biomedical science students are directed towards this style throughout the degree programme up to and including the final year project.  If you are using a personal copy of EndNote you will need to download the style from the lib-guide link below.


1           Ren B, O'Brien BA, Byrne MR, Ch'ng E, Gatt PN, Swan MA, Nassif NT, Wei MQ, Gijsbers R, Debyser Z, et al. Long-term reversal of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice by liver-directed gene therapy. Journal of Gene Medicine. 2013;15:28-41.


2           Brown SP. Exercise physiology : basis of human movement in health and disease. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006.


3           FutureLearn. Ageing Well: Falls.  2015  [cited 18/3/15]; Available from:


4           Battista E. Respiratory system. In: Horton-Szar D, Page C, eds. Pharmacology. 4th ed. Edinburgh: Mosby/Elsevier. 2012:45-52.

The IEEE referencing style is used widely in the fields of electrical engineering and computer science.  It uses a numbered reference list; in-text citations are numbered using square brackets [1]. 

You can find the IEEE Style Manual as part of the IEEE Author Digital Toolbox

The style recommended in the School of Biology has been adapted from the J Comp Physiology A style. Full details of the style are available in the School's Guidelines for the submission of written work. The amended style is available in EndNote as J Comp Physiology A Newcastle Biology.

The main differences from the standard journal style are the omission of issue numbers for journals and the omission of the DOI unless an article is only available in electronic form. The full journal title is needed rather than the abbreviated title.

Modern Humanities Research Association (MHRA)

This is often used in History and other humanities disciplines.  The full MHRA style guide is available to download free from the MHRA site  (referencing is covered in section 11 of this guide).  There is also an MHRA online tutorial from Cardiff University Information Services. 

Modern Language Association (MLA)

This is sometimes used in literature, language and other humanities disciplines. The MLA style manual (3rd edition) is available. The ebook Cite Them Right also offers guidance on how to refer to a number a source types in the MLA style. Use the drop down menu to choose MLA.

OSCOLA 4th ed.

This is a footnote style used in Newcastle Law School.  If you are using EndNote, there is an OSCOLA 4th style available. 

See the Law Library Guide  for more information.  

From the Royal Society of Chemistry, an online guide is available here.


Time to practise

Try our web quiz to test your referencing skills!