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Newcastle University

University Library

Subject support guide

Your subject-specific guide to using library resources.

Library Search

NUMed Learning Resources Centre

This guide is designed to help you to get started using the NUMed Library

Endnote

  is a bibliographic database software package which enables you to organize your lists of references and create bibliographies.

 

It allows you to:
  • Store, organise and search for references in your own personal EndNote Library.
  • Import references download from electronic sources.
  • Add citations to your word-processed document and create your bibliography in number of citation styles. 

 

 

It helps you to:
  • Ensure you to gather the required information to create citations and a reference list.
  • Provide good references to all sources used to avoid plagiarism
  • Ensure you cite your references in the correct style for your school or purpose.

 

On Campus

You can access to EndNote on all cluster PCs in the university (IT Cluster and LRC Computer Lounge).

Off Campus

Off campus access is available via the Windows Virtual Desktop, please visit https://libguides.ncl.ac.uk/endnote/accessing

 

The University Site Licence allows installation of EndNote on staff and student personal machines. 

To request a download of EndNote X9 please submit the EndNote Personal Use Request form to NUIT. 

Note: this copy of EndNote is only for use whilst you remain at Newcastle University and must be removed if and when you leave. 

Further Guides on EndNote

You can download further guides about EndNote from the following resources:

Visit these websites to get more help and tips about using EndNote:
 
 
Email support
If you are having problems and queries about EndNote, please email: medliaison@ncl.ac.uk
For details Referencing Guide, click HERE
 

Samples of Citing & Referencing Styles

Reference List 

  • Be on a separate sheet at the end of the document 
  • Be organised alphabetically, unless there is no author then it is ordered by the source of title, excluding articles such as "a", "an" or "the"
  • Be doubled spaced
  • Contain full references for all in-text references used 

Samples of Citing and Referencing

   In Text Citation:   

Author/s

1 - 2  authors:
To state all surnames

 

Example:

(Kandula and Shamanan, 2019)

OR

Kandula and Shamanan (2019) states that...

Author/s

3 or more authors: 

The first author's surname should be followed by "et al". 

***Note: Using et al. in the In-text Citation, in Reference List need to state all authors of the publication. 

Example:

Kesselheim et al. (2016) states 

OR

(Kesselheim et al., 2016)  

No author

Use organisation responsible in place of the author. If not, use the title in italics.

Example:

(A guide to citation, 2017, pp. 189 - 201)

Citing Reference with No Date Simply state "no date" in place of the year. 

Example: 

(Abraham, no date) 

OR

Abraham (no date) states...

Citing Secondary Sources                     State the reference you used first followed by "cited in" and the original author. 

Example:

Vernon 2010 (cited in Brennan, 2015)

OR

(Vernon, 2010, cited in Brennan, 2015) 

   Reference List Citation for Different Source Type:   

Book

Format:

Author surname(s), initial (s). (Year published) Title. Edition. Place of Publication: Publisher, page number pp. 

Example: 

Brennan, P. (2019) Gray's surgical anatomy. Elsevier. 

Edited Book                                          

Format:

Editor surname(s), initials)(ed.) (Year) Title. Edition edn (Number of Volumes vols). Place of publication: Publisher, page number pp.

Example: 

Try B.N. (2015) 'Harvard citation rules' in Williams, S.T. (ed.) A guide to citation rules. New York: NY Publishers, pp. 34-89.

E-book 

Format: 

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) Title. Edition. Publisher [Type of Medium - online/ebook]. Available at: URL or DOI (Accessed: Day Month Year)

Example:

Tversky, A., Diaconic, P. and Skyrms, B. (2018) Psychology. Princeton University Press [e-book]. Available at: www.jstor.org/stable/j.ctvc77m33.7 (Accessed: 11 March 2020) 

 

Journal Article

Format:

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) 'Title of article', Name of Journal, Volume (issue), page numbers  

Example: 

Grant, W.B. (2020) 'Lower vitamin D status may help explain why black women have a higher risk of invasive breast cancer than white women', Breast Cancer Research, 22(1), p. 24. 

Online Journal Article 

Format: 

Author surname(s), initial(s). (Year) 'Title of article', Name of Journal, Volume (Issue number), page numbers, Retrieved: Day Month, Year, from DOI or Name of Database or URL 

Note: DOI = Digital Object Identifier. If a DOI number is not available, and the item does not come from a database, include the URL of the article instead. 

Example: 

Kesselheim, J.C. et al. (2016) 'Ethics knowledge of recent paediatric residency graduates:the role of residency ethics curricula', Journal of Medical Ethics, 42 (12), pp. 809-814, Retrieved: 11 March, 2020, from URL: www.jstor.org/stable/44606018

Online Image

Format: 

Photographer surname, initial. (Year of publication) Title of photograph [online]. Available at: URL (Accessed: Day Month Year) 

Example: 

Millaies, J.E. (1851-1852) Ophelia [online]. Available at: www.tate.org.uk/art/artwork/Millais-ophelia-n01506 (Accessed: 21 June 2014) 

Website/webpage 

Format: 

Author/organisation's name Year, Page title, Retrieved: Date Month. Year, from URL 

 

Web Document (pdf/power point slide): 

Author/organisation's name Year, Page title [word document type], Retrieved: Date Month, Year, from specific web address 

Note: 

  • If there's no date, put n.d. where you usually put the year
  • If there is no author or organisation name associated with the webpage, use the title of the webpage 
  • If a website contains a year creation as well as the year it was last updated, use the date of the last update. 

Example:

The Learning Resource Centre 2020, Academic Skills, Retrieved: https://libguides.ncl.ac.uk/numed/academic_skills 

 

Allwood, J.M., Laursen, S.E., Malvido de Rodriguez, C. & Bocken, N. 2006, Well dressed?: the present and future sustainability of clothing and textiles in the United Kingdom [PDF], Retrived: 05 February, 2020, from http://www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk 

 

Chin, R. 2006, History of typography: history of digital font [PowerPoint slides], Retrieved: 11 February, 2020 from http://www.abc.com 

Reference List 

  • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. 
  • Use Arabic numerals (1,2,3,4,5)
  • Be single spaced with a one-line space between each entry.

Samples of Citing and Referencing

   In Text Citation:   

Author/s

Multiple authors:
In reference list, ;ist all authors. 

In-text citation, for more than 3 authors, list only the first author in the text, followed by et al. For up to 3 authors, list all the authors in the order they appear. 

Example:

3. Scheneider Z, Whitehead D, Elliott D. Nursing and midwifery research: methods and appraisal for evidence-based practice. 3rd. Marrickville (AU): Elsevier Australia; 2007

Schneider et al.3 found…

No author

Do not use anonymous

Use editors or translators if present 

Use title of the item if no authors, editors, translators or organisation can be found 

Example:

6. Merriam-Webster's colleagiate dictionary. 10th ed. Springfield (MA): Merriam Webster; 1993. 

Citing Reference with No Date If no publication date can be found use the copyright date. Precede the copyright date with the letter "c" 

Example: 

C2007 

Citing Secondary Sources                    

The original should be mentioned in the text of your paper along with the secondary source. 

The original source in not cited in the reference list entry. 

Provide the details of the secondary source only in your reference list.  

Example:

Jones as cited in Smith1, agreed that the experiment failed to confirm this hypothesis. 

Clements2 quoted Chandler in his article 

   Reference List Citation for Different Source Type:   

Book

Format:

Number. Author Surname Author Initial. Book Title: subtitle. Edition number. Place of publication: Publsiher; Year.

OR

Number. Editor Surname Editor Initial, editor. Book Title: subtitle. Edition number. Place of publication: Publisher; Year. 

Example: 

5. Copper, N, Frain, J, editor. ABC of clinical reasoning. West Sussex: Wiley Blackwell;2017. 

 

Chapter in an Edited Book                                          

Format:

Number. Author Surname Author Initial, Title of chapter. In: Editor(s) of book - Surname and initials, editors. Title of book. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of Publication. P. page numbers of chapter  

Note: Multiple authors/editors always separated by commas

Example: 

2. Rowlands TE, Haine, LS. Acute limb ischaemia. In: Donnelly R, London NJM, editors. ABC of arterial and venous disease. 2nd ed. West Sussex: Blackwell publishing; 2009. P. 123-140. 

E-book 

Format: 

Number. Author Surname Author Initial. Title of book [internet]. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher; Year of publication. Chapter [chapter number], Chapter title. [cited Year Month Date]. Available from: URL. 

Example: 

4. Storey KB. Functional metabolism regulation an adaptation [internet]. Hoboken (NJ): John Wiley & Son; 2004 [cited 2009Apr 2]. Available from: https://www.ebscohost.com/Ebooks 

Journal Article

Format:

Number. Author Surname Author Initial. Title of article. Abbreviated journal title. Year of publication; Volume(Issue): Pages. 

Example: 

5. Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002; 347(4): 284-287

Online Journal Article

Format: 

Number. Author Surname Author Initial. Title of article. Abbreviated journal title [internet]. Year Month Day of publication [cited Year Month Day]; volume number (issue number): page numbers. Available from: URL DOI

Note: Months are abbreviated to their first 3 letters

If no URL, just enter the DOI number and vice versa. 

Example: 

2. Kanneganti P, Harris JD, Brohpy RH, Carey JL, Lettermann C, Flanigan DC. The effect of smoking on ligament and cartilage surgery in the knee; a systematic review. Am J Sports Med [internet]. 2012 Dec [cited 2018 Feb 19]; 40(12):2872-8. Available from: https://journals-sagepub-com.exproxy.library.uwa.edu.au/Doi/full10.1177/0363546512458223

Doi: 10.1177/0363546512458223

Online Image

Format: 

Number. Author Surname Author Initial. Title [Image on the internet]. Year Published [cited Year Month Day]. Available from: URL

Example: 

ADAM Editorial Team. Bone marrow biopsy [internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health; 2014 [update 2014 May 29; cited 2015 Jul 22]. [Figure], Bone marrow aspiration. Available from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/imagepages/1129.htm

Website/webpage 

Format: 

Number. Author/organisation’s name. Title of the page [internet]. Place of publication: Publisher’s name; Publication date or year [updated date Year Month Day]. Available from: URL

Example:

7. Gaudin S. How moon landing changed technology history [Internet]. Computerworld UK. 2009 [cited 2014 June 15]. Available from: http://www.computerworlduk.com/in-depth/it-business/2387/how-moon-landing-changed-technology-history/

Academic Writing

Visit the page of  Writing Development Centre to help you on all aspects of academic writing.
 

Citation, Referencing, Plagiarism

Right-Cite for Good Academic Conduct offers guidance and advice to help you to reference and cite correctly, and to avoid plagiarism.
 
Harvard Referencing
Harvard Referencing Style is the commonly being used at Newcastle University. More information about Harvard at Newcastle is available HERE.
 

FMS Digital Skills

A FMS digital skills is an online tutorials website that are provided to you for your self-learn regarding IT services and facilities, as well as the document management. 

Click below to find out more: